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Sobat! Ini nih ada peta Belajar Bersama Bahasa Inggris Wajib di bab Explanation Text!

 


Yuk, mulai belajar bersama!

What is Explanation Text?


 

 

A. Definition
Explanation Text dan teks prosedur secara sederhana memiliki pemahaman yang sama dimana mengajarkan tahapan atau proses suatu hal, namun hal ini cakupannya lebih luas dan mengenai penjelasan bagaimana sesuatu terjadi. Jika teks prosedur hanya menjabarkan tahapan / proses suatu hal. (Procedure texts simply have the same understanding which teaches the stages or processes of something, but this is broader in scope and is about explaining how something happens. If the procedure text only describes the stages / process of a thing.)

B. Social Function
Explanation Text menjelaskan lebih mengapa dan bagaimana suatu hal dapat terjadi. Maka dari itu, teks juga menjabarkan sebab dari suatu proses dapat terjadi. Teks ini cenderung menceritakan proses yang berkaitan dengan fenomena pembentukan alam, sosial, sains, dan budaya. Pada umumnya, teks seperti ini dapat ditemukan dalam buku bidang sains, geografi, dan sejarah.

C. Language Features
Unsur Kebahasaan dalam teks ini meliputi :

1. Penggunaan Simple Present Tense.
Simple Present Tense adalah tenses yang digunakan ketika suatu kejadian sedang berlangsung saat ini atau kejadian yang berlangsung berulang kali (kebiasaan) atau merupakan fakta yang ada.



2. Penggunaan Passive Voice.

Passive Voice digunakan untuk menunjukkan ketertarikan pada seseorang atau objek yang dikenai tindakan dan bukan seseorang atau objek yang melakukan tindakan. Jadi, hal atau orang yang terpenting akan menjadi subjek kalimat.

Types of Explanation Text

Terdapat beberapa tipe Explanation Text berdasarkan bagaimana proses penulis mendeskripsikannya dalam teks :

A. Sequential Explanation
Teks yang mendeskripsikan fenomena alami dan tidak alami.
Contohnya: Siklus kehidupan

B. Cause and Effect Explanation
Teks yang menjelaskan menghubungkan sebab dan akibat bagaimana dan mengapa sebuah kejadian terjadi.
Contohnya: gunung berapi

Selain itu, berikut ini juga terdapat contoh beberapa topik yang termasuk dalam Explanation Text:

  1. Fenomena alam (account of natural phenomenon)
  2. Penjelasan bisnis (business explanation)
  3. Gambaran umum konsep/pekerjaan/undang-undang (Concept/job/ legislation overview)
  4. Deskripsi instrumen (Instrument description)
  5. Penjelasan metodologi (Methodology explanation)
  6. Akun organisme/penyakit (Organism/disease account)
  7. Laporan situs/lingkungan (Site/environment report)
  8. Deskripsi spesies/ras (Species/breed description)
  9. Penjelasan sistem/proses (System/process explanation)

Latihan 1

Which one is NOT the example of Explanation Text?

A. How does rain fall?

B. How to make a beautiful kite?

C. How does the respiratory system work?

D. How can we taste a food?

E. How do seasons happen?

Latihan 2

Answer the following question!

What is the difference between Procedure Text and Explanation Text?

A. Procedure Text gives explanation how the things are done.

B. Explanation Text explains the detail how to do the things completely.

C. Procedure Text describes the reasons why something done.

D. Explanation Text report the result of how the process in doing something.

E. Procedure Text gives information of the steps in doing something only.

Latihan 3

Answer the following question!

What is the main purpose of explanation text?

A. To give information about particular subject.

B. To provide sequences of past events arranged in chronological orders.

C. To tell the readers the steps in doing or making something in a sequence.

D. To enable the readers to understand the processes involved in the working of scientific or natural phenomenon.

E. To provide the readers about factual information of specific subject.

Latihan 4

Answer the following question!

These topics can be discussed in explanation text, except ….

A. How do people get infected by COVID-19?

B. The stages of Rainbow formation.

C. How to make a giant pinwheel.

D. How is a geyser produced?

E. How market works.

Latihan 5

Answer the following question!

Two kinds of explanation text are ….

A. sequential – cause and effect

B. sequential – chronological

C. cause and effect – chronological

D. cause and effect – cause and effect

E. cause – effect

Latihan 6

Read the following text!

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

     What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a food-making process that occurs in green plants. It is the chief function of leaves. The word photosynthesis means putting together with light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugar and other chemical compounds. How is light used in photosynthesis? The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by a green pigment called chlorophyll. Each food-making cell in a plant leaf contains chlorophyll in small bodies called chloroplasts. In chloroplast, light energy causes water drawn from the soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen.
     What are the steps of the photosynthesis process? Let me tell you the process of photosynthesis, in a series of complicated steps, the hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide from the air, forming a simple sugar. Oxygen from the water molecules is given off in the process. From sugar together with nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus from the soil-green plants can make starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex compounds essential for life. Photosynthesis provides the chemical energy that is needed to produce these compounds.

What step after the hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide from the air …

A. Photosynthesis provides the chemical energy that is needed to produced these compounds.

B. Water drawn form the soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen.

C. Food-making process that occurs in green plants.

D. Phosporus from the soil-green plants can make starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex compounds essential for life.

E. Oxygen from the water molecules is given off in the process.

Latihan 7

Read the following text!

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

     What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a food-making process that occurs in green plants. It is the chief function of leaves. The word photosynthesis means putting together with light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugar and other chemical compounds. How is light used in photosynthesis? The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by a green pigment called chlorophyll. Each food-making cell in a plant leaf contains chlorophyll in small bodies called chloroplasts. In chloroplast, light energy causes water drawn from the soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen.
     What are the steps of the photosynthesis process? Let me tell you the process of photosynthesis, in a series of complicated steps, the hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide from the air, forming a simple sugar. Oxygen from the water molecules is given off in the process. From sugar together with nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus from the soil-green plants can make starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex compounds essential for life. Photosynthesis provides the chemical energy that is needed to produce these compounds.

What are photosynthesis need …

A. Water, light, oxygen, worm

B. Soil, chlorophyll, sun, human

C. Bug, air, oxigen, food

D. Light, Carbon dioxide, humus

E. Candle, vitamins, hydrogen

Structure of Explanation Text

Introduction

Di bagian ini, kita perlu menarik perhatian pembaca dengan cara memberikan pertanyaan atau kalimat fakta yang jarang diketahui orang banyak. Sehingga pembaca dapat tertarik dan mengetahui apa yang akan di bahas dalam teks tersebut.

Opening Statement

Di bagian kedua ini, kita perlu memberikan definisi atau gambaran singkat dari objek yang akan kita bahas.

Explanation Sequence 1, etc.

Setelah memberikan definisi atau gambaran singkat dari hal yang akan dibahas, kita bisa mulai memberikan penjelasan secara bertahap bagaimana proses terjadinya suatu hal. Jangan lupa juga untuk menggunakan kalimat penghubung agar terdapat variasi dalam teks.

Conclusion

Di bagian akhir, setelah memberikan penjelasan tentang definisi pun tahapan prosesnya, kita dapat menyimpulkan dengan cara mnuliskan klimat baru atau menuliskan kembali (rewrite) dari paragraf 1.

Yuk, kita lihat contoh Explanation Text di halaman selanjutnya.

Example of Explanation Text

Introduction

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed?

Opening Statement

A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash and gas to escape out onto its surface.

Explanation Sequence 1, etc.

Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the center of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent.

The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks.

Conclusion

In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

Example of Explanation Text (2)


 

Text 1
 

Digestive System


Source : https://www.niddk.nih.gov/ 

The first digestive process takes place in the mouth. The food we eat is broken up into small pieces by the action of teeth, mixed with saliva, a juice secreted by glands in the mouth. Saliva contains digestive juice which moistens the food, so it can be swallowed easily. From the mouth, food passes through the esophagus (the food passage) into the stomach. Here, the food is mixed with the juices secreted by the cells in the stomach for several hours. Then the food enters the small intestine. All the time the muscular walls of the intestine are squeezing, mixing, and moving the food onwards. In a few hours, the food changes into acids. These are soon absorbed by the villi (microscopic branch projections from the intestine walls) and passed into the bloodstream.


Text 2

How Chocolate is Made


Source : https://vaya.in/

Have we wondered where we get chocolate from? Well, this time we will enter the amazing world of chocolate so we can understand exactly what we are eating. Chocolate starts a tree called the cacao tree. This tree grows in equatorial regions, especially in places such as South America, Africa, and Indonesia. The cacao tree produces a fruit about the size of a small pineapple. Inside the fruits are the tree’s seeds. They are also known as cocoa beans. Next, the beans are fermented for about a week, dried in the sun. After that, they are shipped to the chocolate maker. The chocolate maker starts processing by roasting the beans to bring out the flavor. Different beans from different places have different qualities and flavors. So they are often shorted and blended to produce a distinctive mix. The next process is winnowing. The roasted beans are winnowed to remove the meat nib of the cacao bean from its shell. Then the nibs are blended. The blended nibs are grounded to make it liquid. The liquid is called chocolate liquor. It tastes bitter. All seeds contain some amount of fat and cacao beans are not different. However, cacao beans are half fat, which is why the ground nibs from liquid. It is pure bitter chocolate.

Text 3


How a Cancer is Formed


 Source : https://www.cancer.gov/ 

What is cancer? It is actually a group of more than one hundred separate diseases. Most of us fear cancer. It is reasonable because next to heart disease, cancer is the second leading cause of death. Cancer cells come from normal cells because of mutations of DNA. Those mutations can occur spontaneously. The mutations may be also induced by other factors such as nuclear and electromagnetic radiation, viruses, bacteria and fungi, parasites, heat, chemicals in the air, water, and food, mechanical cell-level injury, free radicals, evolution, and aging of DNA, etc. All such factors can produce mutations that may start cancer.
Cancer cells are formed continuously in the organism. It is estimated that there are about 10,000 cancer cells at any given time in a healthy person. Why do some result in macroscopic-level cancers and some do not? First, not all damaged cells can multiply and many of them die quickly. Second, those which potentially divide and form cancer are effectively destroyed by the mechanisms available to the immune system. Therefore cancer develops if the immune system is not working properly or the amount of cells produced is too great for the immune system to eliminate.

Text 4


How Does Rain Happen?


Source : https://easyscienceforkids.com/


Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth’s surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth’s atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow. However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporate while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon that is often seen in hot, dry desert regions.

Example of Explanation Text (3)

How does snow form?


Source : https://www.oceanclock.com/

     Snow is defined as 'solid precipitation which occurs in a variety of minute ice crystals at temperatures well below 0 °C but as larger snowflakes at temperatures near 0 °C.' It is one of the UK's most striking weather phenomena causing a transformation of the world around us, but it can also lead to the potential for disruption. Snow forms when tiny ice crystals in clouds stick together to become snowflakes. If enough crystals stick together, they'll become heavy enough to fall to the ground.

     Snowflakes that descend through moist air that is slightly warmer than 0 °C will melt around the edges and stick together to produce big flakes. Snowflakes that fall through cold, dry air produce powdery snow that does not stick together. Snow is formed when temperatures are low and there is moisture in the atmosphere in the form of tiny ice crystals. Precipitation falls as snow when the air temperature is below 2 °C. It is a myth that it needs to be below zero to snow. In fact, in this country, the heaviest snowfalls tend to occur when the air temperature is between zero and 2 °C. The falling snow does begin to melt as soon as the temperature rises above freezing, but as the melting process begins, the air around the snowflake is cooled. Snowfall can be defined as 'slight,' 'moderate' or 'heavy'. When combined with strong winds, a snowfall can create blizzards and drifts. If the temperature is warmer than 2 °C then the snowflake will melt and fall as sleet rather than snow, and if it's warmer still, it will be rain.

Source: https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/

Latihan 1

Read the text and answer the following question!

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed?

A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash, and gas to escape out onto its surface.

Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the center of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent.

The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks.

In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

What is the form of the passage that connects the chamber?

A. molten rock - like

B. jar - like

C. tube-like

D. lava-like

E. solidified

Latihan 2

Read the text and answer the following question!

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed?

A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash, and gas to escape out onto its surface.

Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the center of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent.

The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks.

In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

The word ash has similar in meaning to ....

A. atom

B. sand

C. dust

D. blast

E. liquid

Latihan 3

Read the text and answer the following question!

Tsunami

Tsunami is a term that comes from Japanese word which means harbor (tsu) and wave (nami). A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water.

A tsunami happens when the ocean floor at plate boundary rises or suddenly slips, dispacles the water above it and produces powerful waves on the ocean surface. Others may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions.

A tsunami always brings great destruction. It crashes ashore with disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives and fatal property damage.

What is the text about?

A. The Japanese word.

B. A damage caused by ocean floor slips.

C. A displaced of water that causes powerful waves.

D. An information about what tsunami is.

E. An ocean waves crashes ashore.

Latihan 4

Read the text and answer the following question!

Tsunami

Tsunami is a term that comes from Japanese word which means harbor (tsu) and wave (nami). A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water.

A tsunami happens when the ocean floor at plate boundary rises or suddenly slips, dispacles the water above it and produces powerful waves on the ocean surface. Others may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions.

A tsunami always brings great destruction. It crashes ashore with disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives and fatal property damage.

What are the impacts caused by tsunamis?

A. The plate boundary rises.

B. Underwater landslides and volcano eruptions.

C. Severe flooding and loss of lives.

D. A large waves which is not generated by landslides.

E. Low amount of water.

Latihan 5

Read the text and answer the following question!

Tsunami

Tsunami is a term that comes from Japanese word which means harbor (tsu) and wave (nami). A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water.

A tsunami happens when the ocean floor at plate boundary rises or suddenly slips, dispacles the water above it and produces powerful waves on the ocean surface. Others may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions.

A tsunami always brings great destruction. It crashes ashore with disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives and fatal property damage.

The word disastrous means ….

A. Effect

B. Damage

C. Terrible

D. Miserable

E. Loss

Latihan 6

Read the text and answer the following question!

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed? A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash, and gas to escape out onto its surface. Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the center of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent. The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks. In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

What is the form of the passage that connects the chamber?

A. Molten rock - like

B. Jar - like

C. Tube-like

D. Lava-like

E. Solidified

Latihan 7

Read the text and answer the following question!

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed? A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash, and gas to escape out onto its surface. Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the center of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent. The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks. In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

The word "ash" has a similar meaning to ...

A. Atom

B. Sand

C. Dust

D. Blast

E. Liquid

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