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What is Explanation Text?

Explanation Text dan teks prosedur secara sederhana memiliki pemahaman yang sama dimana mengajarkan tahapan atau proses suatu hal.

Jika teks prosedur menjabarkan tahapan / proses suatu hal, Explanation Text menjelaskan lebih mengapa dan bagaimana suatu hal dapat terjadi. Maka dari itu, teks juga menjabarkan sebab dari suatu proses dapat terjadi.

Teks ini cenderung menceritakan proses yang berkaitan dengan fenomena pembentukan alam, sosial, sains, dan budaya.

Pada umumnya, teks seperti ini dapat ditemukan dalam buku bidang sains, geografi, dan sejarah.

Unsur Kebahasaan dalam teks ini meliputi

  • Penggunaan simple present tense.
  • Penggunaan passive voice.

Types of Explanation Text

Terdapat beberapa tipe Explanation Text berdasarkan bagaimana proses penulis mendeskripsikannya dalam teks.

Sequential Explanation
Teks yang mendeskripsikan fenomena alami dan tidak alami.
Contohnya: Siklus kehidupan

Cause and Effect Explanation
Teks yang menjelaskan menghubungkan sebab dan akibat bagaimana dan mengapa sebuah kejadian terjadi.
Contohnya: gunung berapi

Selain itu, berikut ini juga terdapat contoh beberapa topik yang termasuk dalam Explanation Text:

  • Fenomena alam (account of natural phenomenon)
  • Penjelasan bisnis (business explanation)
  • concept/job/legislation overview
  • instrument description
  • methodology explanation
  • organism/disease account
  • site/environment report
  • species/breed description
  • system/process explanation

Latihan 1

Which one is NOT the example of Explanation Text?

A. How does rain fall?

B. How to make a beautiful kite?

C. How does the respiratory system work?

D. How can we taste a food?

E. How do seasons happen?

Latihan 2

Answer the following question!

What is the difference between Procedure Text and Explanation Text?

A. Procedure Text gives explanation how the things are done.

B. Explanation Text explains the detail how to do the things completely.

C. Procedure Text describes the reasons why something done.

D. Explanation Text report the result of how the process in doing something.

E. Procedure Text gives information of the steps in doing something only.

Latihan 3

Answer the following question!

What is the main purpose of explanation text?

A. To give information about particular subject.

B. To provide sequences of past events arranged in chronological orders.

C. To tell the readers the steps in doing or making something in a sequence.

D. To enable the readers to understand the processes involved in the working of scientific or natural phenomenon.

E. To provide the readers about factual information of specific subject.

Latihan 4

Answer the following question!

These topics can be discussed in explanation text, except ….

A. How do people get infected by COVID-19?

B. The stages of Rainbow formation.

C. How to make a giant pinwheel.

D. How is a geyser produced?

E. How market works.

Latihan 5

Answer the following question!

Two kinds of explanation text are ….

A. sequential – cause and effect

B. sequential – chronological

C. cause and effect – chronological

D. cause and effect – cause and effect

E. cause – effect

Example of Explanation Text

Introduction

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed?

Opening Statement

A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash and gas to escape out onto its surface.

Explanation Sequence 1, etc.

Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the centre of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent.

The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, form into rocks.

Conclusion

In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

Structure of Explanation Text

Introduction

Di bagian ini, kita perlu menarik perhatian pembaca dengan cara memberikan pertanyaan atau kalimat fakta yang jarang diketahui orang banyak. Sehingga pembaca dapat tertarik dan mengetahui apa yang akan di bahas dalam teks tersebut.

Opening Statement

Di bagian kedua ini, kita perlu memberikan definisi atau gambaran singkat dari objek yang akan kita bahas.

Explanation Sequence 1, etc.

Setelah memberikan definisi atau gambaran singkat dari hal yang akan dibahas, kita bisa mulai memberikan penjelasan secara bertahap bagaimana proses terjadinya suatu hal. Jangan lupa juga untuk menggunakan kalimat penghubung agar terdapat variasi dalam teks.

Conclusion

Di bagian akhir, setelah memberikan penjelasan tentang definisi pun tahapan prosesnya, kita dapat menyimpulkan dengan cara mnuliskan klimat baru atau menuliskan kembali (rewrite) dari paragraf 1.

Yuk, kita lihat contoh Explanation Text di halaman selanjutnya.

Latihan 2

Read the text and answer the following question!

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed?

A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash, and gas to escape out onto its surface.

Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the center of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent.

The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks.

In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

The word ash has similar in meaning to ....

A. atom

B. sand

C. dust

D. blast

E. liquid

Latihan 1

Read the text and answer the following question!

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes are formed?

A volcano is a vent or an opening on the earth's surface which allows molten rock called magma, volcanic ash, and gas to escape out onto its surface.

Volcanoes are formed whenever there is a crack in the crust of the earth. A tube-like passage connects a chamber of magma (molten rock) at the center of the earth to the earth's crust.

When the pressure builds up in the chamber, the magma, gases, and ash are pushed up through to the top of the tube on the earth's surface known as a vent.

The red-hot magma that escapes flowing over the earth's surface is called lava which, when cools, forms into rocks.

In fact, the mountains we see today are nothing but solidified lava from previously erupted volcanoes.

What is the form of the passage that connects the chamber?

A. molten rock - like

B. jar - like

C. tube-like

D. lava-like

E. solidified

Example of Explanation Text (2)

Digestive System

The first digestive process takes place in the mouth. The food we eat is broken up into small pieces by the action of teeth, mixed with saliva, a juice secreted by glands in the mouth. Saliva contains digestive juice which moistens the food, so it can be swallowed easily.

From the mouth, food passes through the esophagus (the food passage) into the stomach. Here, the food is mixed with the juices secreted by the cells in the stomach for several hours. Then the food enters the small intestine. All the time the muscular walls of the intestine are squeezing, mixing and moving the food onwards.

In a few hours, the food changes into acids. These are soon absorbed by the villi (microscopic branch projections from the intestine walls) and passed into the bloodstream.

 

How Chocolate is Made

Have we wondered how we get chocolate from? Well this time we will enter the amazing world of chocolate so we can understand exactly we are eating.

Chocolate starts a tree called cacao tree. This tree grows in equatorial regions, especially in place such as South America, Africa, and Indonesia. The cacao tree produces a fruit about the size of a small pine apple. In side the fruits are the tree’s seeds. They are also known as coco beans.

Next, the beans are fermented for about a week, dried in the sun. After that they are shipped to the chocolate maker. The chocolate maker starts processing by roasting the beans to bring out the flavour. Different beans from different places have different qualities and flavour. So they are often shorted and blended to produce a distinctive mix.

The next process is winnowing. The roasted beans are winnowed to remove the meat nib of the cacao bean from its shell. Then the nibs are blended. The blended nibs are grounded to make it liquid. The liquid is called chocolate liquor. It tastes bitter.

All seeds contain some amount of fat and cacao beans are not different. However, cacao beans are half fat, which is why they ground nibs from liquid. It is pure bitter chocolate.

Example of Explanation Text (3)

How a Cancer is formed

What is cancer? It is actually a group of more than one hundred separate diseases. Most of us are fear from cancer It is reasonable because next to heart disease, cancer is the second leading cause of death.
Cancer cells come from normal cells because of mutations of DNA. Those mutations can occur spontaneously. The mutations may be also induced by other factors such as: nuclear and electromagnetic radiation, viruses, bacteria and fungi, parasites, heat, chemicals in the air, water and food, mechanical cell-level injury, free radicals, evolution and ageing of DNA, etc. All such factors can produce mutations that may start cancer.

Cancer cells are formed continuously in the organism. It is estimated that there are about 10,000 cancer cells at any given time in a healthy person. Why do some result in macroscopic-level cancers and some do not? First, not all damaged cells can multiply and many of them die quickly. Second, those which potentially divide and form cancer are effectively destroyed by the mechanisms available to the immune system. Therefore cancer develops if the immune system is not working properly or the amount of cells produced is too great for the immune system to eliminate.

 

How does Rain Happen?

Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth’s surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth’s atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.

However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions

Latihan 3

Read the text and answer the following question!

Tsunami

Tsunami is a term that comes from Japanese word which means harbor (tsu) and wave (nami). A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water.

A tsunami happens when the ocean floor at plate boundary rises or suddenly slips, dispacles the water above it and produces powerful waves on the ocean surface. Others may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions.

A tsunami always brings great destruction. It crashes ashore with disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives and fatal property damage.

What is the text about?

A. The Japanese word.

B. A damage caused by ocean floor slips.

C. A displaced of water that causes powerful waves.

D. An information about what tsunami is.

E. An ocean waves crashes ashore.

Latihan 4

Read the text and answer the following question!

Tsunami

Tsunami is a term that comes from Japanese word which means harbor (tsu) and wave (nami). A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water.

A tsunami happens when the ocean floor at plate boundary rises or suddenly slips, dispacles the water above it and produces powerful waves on the ocean surface. Others may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions.

A tsunami always brings great destruction. It crashes ashore with disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives and fatal property damage.

What are the impacts caused by tsunamis?

A. The plate boundary rises.

B. Underwater landslides and volcano eruptions.

C. Severe flooding and loss of lives.

D. A large waves which is not generated by landslides.

E. Low amount of water.

Latihan 5

Read the text and answer the following question!

Tsunami

Tsunami is a term that comes from Japanese word which means harbor (tsu) and wave (nami). A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water.

A tsunami happens when the ocean floor at plate boundary rises or suddenly slips, dispacles the water above it and produces powerful waves on the ocean surface. Others may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions.

A tsunami always brings great destruction. It crashes ashore with disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives and fatal property damage.

The word disastrous means ….

A. Effect

B. Damage

C. Terrible

D. Miserable

E. Loss

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